Tuesday, 10 August 2010

Sumpah pemuda

Peristiwa sejarah Soempah Pemoeda atau Sumpah Pemuda merupakan suatu pengakuan dari Pemuda-Pemudi Indonesia yang mengikrarkan satu tanah air, satu bangsa dan satu bahasa. Sumpah Pemuda dibacakan pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 hasil rumusan dari Kerapatan Pemoeda-Pemoedi atau Kongres Pemuda II Indonesia yang hingga kini setiap tahunnya diperingati sebagai Hari Sumpah Pemuda.
Kongres Pemuda II dilaksanakan tiga sesi di tiga tempat berbeda oleh organisasi Perhimpunan Pelajar Pelajar Indonesia (PPPI) yang beranggotakan pelajar dari seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Kongres tersebut dihadiri oleh berbagai wakil organisasi kepemudaan yaitu Jong Java, Jong Batak, Jong, Celebes, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Islamieten Bond, Jong Ambon, dsb serta pengamat dari pemuda tiong hoa seperti Kwee Thiam Hong, John Lauw Tjoan Hok, Oey Kay Siang dan Tjoi Djien Kwie.
Isi Dari Sumpah Pemuda Hasil Kongres Pemuda Kedua :
PERTAMA : Kami Poetera dan Poeteri Indonesia, Mengakoe Bertoempah Darah Jang Satoe, Tanah Indonesia. (Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia, Mengaku Bertumpah Darah Yang Satu, Tanah Indonesia).
KEDOEA : Kami Poetera dan Poeteri Indonesia, Mengakoe Berbangsa Jang Satoe, Bangsa Indonesia. (Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia, Mengaku Berbangsa Yang Satu, Bangsa Indonesia).
KETIGA : Kami Poetera dan Poeteri Indonesia, Mendjoendjoeng Bahasa Persatoean, Bahasa Indonesia. (Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia, Menjunjung Bahasa Persatuan, Bahasa Indonesia).
Dalam peristiwa sumpah pemuda yang bersejarah tersebut diperdengarkan lagu kebangsaan Indonesia untuk yang pertama kali yang diciptakan oleh W.R. Soepratman. Lagu Indonesia Raya dipublikasikan pertama kali pada tahun 1928 pada media cetak surat kabar Sin Po dengan mencantumkan teks yang menegaskan bahwa lagu itu adalah lagu kebangsaan. Lagu itu sempat dilarang oleh pemerintah kolonial hindia belanda, namun para pemuda tetap terus menyanyikannya.
Apabila kita ingin mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai banyak hal tentang Sumpah Pemuda kita bisa menunjungi Museum Sumpah Pemuda yang berada di Gedung Sekretariat PPI Jl. Kramat Raya 106 Jakarta Pusat. Museum ini memiliki koleksi utama seperti biola asli milik Wage Rudolf Supratman yang menciptakan lagu kebangsaan Indonesia Raya serta foto-foto bersejarah peristiwa Sumpah Pemuda tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 yang menjadi tonggak sejarah pergerakan pemuda-pemudi Indonesia.

Monday, 9 August 2010

Rubik's History

  • 944
    Ernő Rubik
    Ernő Rubik is born in Budapest, Hungary. He grows up to become an architect, designer and university professor.
  • 1974
    Wooden prototype of the cube
    Rubik creates the first working prototype of the cube. This is the official birth date of the world’s favourite toy.
  • 1975
    Rubik patents the ‘Magic Cube’ and Hungarian toy-manufacturer Politechnika begins the difficult task of mass-production.
  • 1977
    Magic Cube box closeup
    The first ‘Magic Cube’ is sold in a Budapest toyshop.
  • 1980
    First Rubik's Cube in 1980
    Ideal Toy Corporation begins exporting the cube from Hungary. The ‘Magic Cube’ is renamed the ‘Rubik’s Cube’.
  • 1981
    You Can Do The Cube publication
    A publication entitled ‘You Can Do the Cube’ was produced by Patrick Bossert, a 12-year-old schoolboy from England. The book goes on to sell 1.5 million copies.
  • 1982
    Ernő Rubik with a Rubik's Cube between fingers
    The first annual International Rubik’s Championships are held in Budapest. More than 100 million cubes have now been sold and Rubik’s enters the Oxford English Dictionary.
  • 1990
    3x3x3 Rubik's Cube
    Ernő Rubik becomes President of the Hungarian Engineering Academy. He later establishes the International Rubik Foundation to support talented young designers.
  • 1995
    Masterpiece Cube by Diamond Cutters International
    Diamond Cutters International creates the ‘Masterpiece Cube’ for Rubik’s 15th birthday – a fully-functional, 185 carat Cube made of solid gold and encrusted with coloured jewels.
  • 2005
    25th Anniversary limited edition Rubik's Cube
    The cube celebrates its 25th anniversary on 26 July. A special, limited edition Rubik’s Cube is produced to mark the occasion.
  • 2007
    25th Rubik's World Championships
    World Rubik's Cube Championships are held in Budapest from 5-7 October, marking the 25th anniversary of the competition. Ernő Rubik was there to award the prizes in person.
  • Today
    Ernő Rubik
    Ernő Rubik is now enjoying his retirement but the Rubik’s Studio continues to design games and work with young designers in Hungary and beyond.

Weevils

Weevils on Stored Grain

Rice Weevil & Granary Weevil
A complex of weevils, the rice ( Sitophilus oryza ), granary ( Sitophilus granarius ), and maize ( Sitophilus zeamais ) weevils, are among the most destructive pests of grains, seeds, and grain products stored in elevators and bins. They probably are not native to North America, but entered in seeds carried by settlers through ports. These weevils are pests of grain throughout the world.

DESCRIPTIONS

Rice Weevil:
The rice weevil is a small snout beetle which varies in size, but it averages about three thirty-seconds inch in length. It varies from a dull red-brown to black, and is usually marked on the back with four light red to yellow spots. The rice weevil has fully developed wings beneath its wing covers and can fly readily. The thorax is densely pitted with somewhat irregularly shaped punctures, except for a smooth narrow strip extending down the middle of the back. The larval stage of this insect is a soft, white, legless, fleshy grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. When mature, the grub changes to a naked white pupa and later emerges as an adult beetle.
Maize Weevil:
The maize weevil is a small snout beetle which varies in size, averaging about three thirty-seconds inch in length. It varies from dull red-brown to nearly black and is usually marked on the back with four light reddish or yellowish spots. The maize weevil has fully developed wings beneath its wing covers and can fly readily. The thorax is densely pitted with somewhat irregularly shaped punctures, except for a smooth narrow strip extending down the middle of the dorsal (top) side. An egg hatches in a few days into a soft , white, legless, fleshly grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. The grub changes to a naked white pupa and later emerges as an adult beetle. The rate of development is slightly slower for the maize weevil than for the rice weevil. A minimum of thirty days is required for passing through the egg, larval and pupal stages.
Granary Weevil:
The adult granary weevil is a somewhat cylindrical beetle about two-tenths of an inch (two to three mm) long. The head is prolonged with a distinct snout extending downward from the head for a distance of about one-fourth the length of the body. The weevil is polished red brown to black with ridged wing-covers and a well-marked thorax with oval pits. Unlike the rice and maize weevils, the granery weevil cannot fly. The egg hatches in a few days into a soft, white, legless, fleshy grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. The grub changes to a naked white pupa and later emerges as an adult beetle.

LIFE HISTORIES

Rice Weevil:
Adult rice weevils live for four to five months and each female lays 300 to 400 eggs during this period. The female uses her strong mandibles to chew a hole in the grain kernel where she deposits a single egg and seals the hole with a gelatinous fluid. During hot weather, the development period for egg to adult may be as few as twenty-six days. This period is greatly prolonged during cool or cold weather. Rice weevils are capable of flight, and infestations may develop in the field prior to harvest.
Maize Weevil:
Maize weevils, for a long time were referred to as a larger strain or race of the rice weevil, but are now recognized as a distinct species. The maize weevil is slightly larger, up to one-eighth inch (four mm) long, and darker than the rice weevil; the degree of variation within each species makes them difficult to tell apart. The thorax of the maize weevil is densely and uniformly pitted with round punctures. An egg hatches in a few days into a soft, white, legless, fleshy grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. After the larval stages are completed the grub changes to a white pupa and later emerges as an adult beetle.
Granary Weevil:
Adult granary weevil live an average of about seven to eight weeks. Each female lays 50 to 200 white eggs during this period. The female uses her strong mandibles to chew a small hole in the grain kernel, where she deposits a single egg in the hole and seals it with a gelatinous fluid. In warm weather, the granary weevil can develop from egg to adult in about five weeks. Cold weather prolongs development. The granary weevil cannot fly and so is most likely to be found where grain is stored, and moves with infested grain.

DAMAGE

These weevils are very destructive grain pests. Of the three, the rice weevil is probably the most insidious, owing largely to the ability of flight. All three weevils develop as larvae within the grain kernels. They frequently cause almost complete destruction of grain in elevators or bins, where conditions are favorable and the grain is undisturbed for some length of time. Infested grain will usually be found heating at the surface, and it may be damp, sometimes to such an extent that sprouting occurs. Wheat, corn, macaroni, oats, barley, sorghum, Kaffir seed, and buckwheat are just some of the grains and products on which these weevils feed.

CONTROL

Prevention is the best strategy to avoid insect problems in stored grains. Proper bin sanitation before introduction of new grain minimizes the need for pesticides. Good sanitation involves the removal of old grain and dust in and around the grain bin. This includes removal of old grain from corners, floors, and walls and grain that may have spilled on the exterior of the bin. Any grain remaining when a bin is emptied can harbor insect infestations which will move into the new grain. After the bin is cleaned, and all needed repairs have been made, the floor and wall surfaces both inside and outside the bin should be treated. Take special care to treat all cracks, crevices, and areas around doorways and other places where insects could hide or enter. Spray the bins about four to six weeks prior to storing grain.
Before grain is placed in a bin, it should be screened to eliminate fine materials and broken kernels. Grain placed in a clean bin should be checked at two week intervals during warm months and at one month intervals during cooler months for the presence of hotspots, moldy areas, and live insects. If any of these conditions exist, the grain should be aerated to lower the moisture level and temperature.
Grain that is to be stored for longer than six months may need a protective application of an approved insecticide. Treatments can be applied as the grain is loaded into the bin through the use of a metering device calibrated to apply the proper amounts. After the grain is binned and leveled, a surface dressing can be applied to prevent insects from entering the grain on the surface. If infestation occurs in spite of these precautions, fumigation of the grain will be necessary. Because of the high toxicity of registered fumigants and technical knowledge needed for their proper use, a qualified pesticide applicator should be contacted to perform the fumigation.

WARNING

Pesticides are poisonous. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds.
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DISCLAIMER

This publication is available in alternative media on request.
Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by The Pennsylvania State University or Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture is implied.
Entomological Notes are intended to serve as a quick reference guide and should not be used as a substitute for product label information. Although every attempt is made to produce Entomological Notes that are complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears the responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Works, Acts of Congress May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Pennsylvania Legislature. D. Jackson, Director of Cooperative Extension, The Pennsylvania State University.
The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the policy of the University to maintain an academic and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. The Pennsylvania State University prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or veteran status. Discrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State University. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 328 Boucke Building, University Park, PA 16802-2801; Tel 814-865-4700/V, 814-863-1150/TTY.
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